In any scientific study or thesis, a research hypothesis is proposed, which has a alternative hypothesis (H1) which is the one that is expected to be confirmed and a null hypothesis (H0) that is to be refuted. In this sense, it is important to consider how different variables can interact with each other, be it in the economy, in education or in any other field.
To carry out the contrast of hypotheses, the authors of the thesis must follow scientific process It involves several phases. Which are:
Identification of the research problem: It select the theme and the subject to be studied is defined, the matter can be from any area, some examples: economy, education, or science. It is important to establish the purpose of the research and define the objectives that the authors want to achieve.
Literature review: This is a phase in which information is collected on the subject of research through the verification of scientific articles, books and other relevant sources, hence the importance of scientific dissemination. This phase is important to understand the current state of knowledge on the subject and thus identify how it has been addressed.
Formulation of the hypothesis: Be expressed, simply, with the possible relationships between the variants of the problem. Units of analysis, variables and logical analogies should be included.
Data collection: It gather information about the sample of study and the choice of methods for data collection, such as surveys, interviews, tests, observation, among others.
Data analysis: Once the data have been pooled, they are analyzed to determine whether the results support or refute H0 or any of the H1. Are used various analysis techniques.
Communicate your findings: Scientific dissemination is part fundamental of scienceHence the importance of announcing the results with the world. This may involve presenting your achievements at a conference or posting your findings online.
Definition of alternative hypothesis
In a scientific investigationthe research hypothesis is a assumption or statement about a possible explanation of a phenomenon or an observed fact. The alternative hypothesis is the opposite of the null and is generally designed to test for the presence of an effect or relationship between two or more variables.
The H1 can be one-sidedthat is, the effect or relationship is expected to be in a single direction, or bilateral, when the effect or relationship is expected to occur in both directions.
He Hypothesis testing is a statistical technique used to determine if an H0 should be rejected based on the presentation of the data. In this process, an H0 and an H1 are established, and then data is collected from a sample to test which of these hypotheses is likely to be true. If the data collected indicates that H0 is unlikely, it can be concluded that H1 is more likely to be yes.
Hypothesis testing is a very valuable tool in the scientific investigationsince it helps to determine if a hypothesis is compatible with the observed data.
It is important to note that the H1 and H0 must be exclusive and exhaustive. That is, if the null is rejected, the alternative is accepted and vice versa.
What is an alternative hypothesis according to authors?
According to some authors, H1 is an assertion that is presented as the possible cause or explanation of the phenomenon that is being investigated. For his part, Creswell defines it: ‘It is the statement that there is a difference or relationship between two or more variables’. On the other hand, Kumar and Sekaran They understand it as ‘the statement that there is a significant relationship between two or more variables in the population under investigation’.
What does it mean to accept an alternative hypothesis?
When a hypothesis control, an H0 and an H1 are established. The H0 is the statement that is assumed to be true until enough tests are run to show it to be false. H1 is what you might think or try to prove to be true.
If one is accepted alternative hypothesis, this means that there is enough evidence to reject H0 and, therefore, it is observed that the statement of H1 is true. A significant result has been found that cannot be attributed to chance. Therefore, H1 is considered the conclusion of interest in a studysince it is the statement that we are trying to prove.
It is important to note thatAlthough an alternative hypothesis has been accepted in a particular study, this does not mean that the hypothesis is true in all cases or at all times.
Alternative Hypothesis Examples
- If a new diet is given to a A group of peoplethey are expected to lose more weight than the control group following the regular diet.
- If you apply a new teaching method in a schoolstudents are expected to perform better than those who received conventional education.
- If you use a Pharmacotherapy for a disease, patients undergoing the treatment are expected to have a higher rate of recovery than patients receiving a placebo.
In all of these examples, the alternative hypothesis suggests that there is a significant relationship between two variables. In the first hypothesis, the two variables are diet and weight loss; in the second hypothesis, the two variables are the teaching method and the academic performance, and in the third hypothesis, the two variables are the pharmacological treatment and the recovery of the patients.
Let’s see other examples:
To the present information using dynamic and visual slides will result in greater retention of the information by the audience compared to presenting information using traditional static text only.
In this alternate Hypothesis, It is being affirmed that the use of some dynamic slide (for example, those that contain animations, graphics and other visual elements) will make the attending public retain more attention of the information in comparison with the presentation of information using only static text. This statement is then tested against the null hypothesis, which might be something like:
There will be no significant difference in the retention of information by the audience when using a dynamic slide compared to the presentation of information with static text.
Continuing with the examples, the application of techniques of phytoremediation will reduce the levels of heavy metals in contaminated soils compared to the levels observed in untreated soils.
Here it is observed that in this alternative hypothesis, it is confirmed that phytoremediation (a soil remediation method that uses plants to metabolize toxic substances present in the soil) will have a positive effect in reducing the levels of heavy metals in contaminated soils.
This statement is compared to the null hypothesiswhich could be something like:
The application of phytoremediation techniques will not have a significant effect in reducing the levels of heavy metals in contaminated soils.