The porticoes are known for being structural elements Widely used in civil engineering for offering numerous advantages when preparing a construction. These consist of a series of beams and columns that, being interconnected, form a framework capable of resisting large loads and distributing forces in different types of infrastructure.
In addition, they are usually made of metal, steel, and hydraulic or reinforced concrete, depending on the needs of the project as well as the specific requirements of each structure. Throughout the following article we will talk a little more about the different types of frames, how they are built and their objective in the civil Engineering.
In areas such as civil engineering and architecture, frames are those structures composed of beams and columns interconnected that form a rigid and resistant frame. These, when working together, are capable of supporting various loads and distributing forces throughout the entire structure.
This type of structure is widely used when it comes to construct buildings or other types of infrastructurewhere strength and stability are required. This is thanks to the fact that they can resist both vertical and horizontal loads, such as their own weight, live loads, winds and earthquakes.
Today, frames have benefited from advances in construction technology through the use of computer-aided design tools and software. This helps the engineer to optimize the dimensions, materials and resistance of the framesmaking the structures safer and more efficient.
What is the purpose of frames in civil engineering?
The objectives of the frames cover several fundamental aspects for the design and construction of structuresamong which are the following:
- structural strength: Portals are designed to provide a structure with greater resistance and stability to the loads that act on it. It must be able to support vertical loads, such as the weight of the structure, live loads (furniture, equipment, people, etc.) and sample loads (facilities, construction materials, etc.).
- Design flexibility: this type of structure offers a more flexible and versatile solution in architectural design. By forming a heavy-duty frame, it allows for larger, clutter-free interior spaces, giving interior design more flexibility and optimizing the use of available space.
- construction efficiency: thanks to its modular design and the fact that it is possible to use materials such as reinforced concrete and steel, the structure can be prefabricated and assembled on the construction site. This allows the construction to be more precise and faster, thanks to the optimization of time and project execution costs.
- Adaptability and scalability: the frames are designed taking into account future modifications or expansions in the structure. Thanks to its configuration, it allows the addition of new frames and the extension of the structure in an efficient and systematic way.
- Aesthetics and architectural value: Porticos are structural elements with attractive aesthetics, which contributes to their architectural value. Furthermore, its design can be customized, allowing for interesting shapes and geometries to be incorporated.
What types of porches are there?
Within the area of construction and civil engineering, there are various types of frames that are widely used for structures with valuable architectural designs or structures that require better load distribution. Between the most common types of frames used for the construction of various structures are the following:
The nave frames, in general, are structures used in warehouses, industrial warehouses and large commercial spaces. They are designed to provide column-free areas, offering better space distribution and facilitating the movement of equipment and merchandise.
This type of portico consists of a series of columns and beams that together form a rigid frame. The columns are at regular intervals throughout the length of the structure and support the vertical loads.
On the other hand, the beams are the ones that connect the columns and who distribute the horizontal loads, such as seismic forces or wind. This is thanks to the fact that the nave porticos are designed to be able to withstand the applied loadssuch as live loads, deck weight and cargo stored in the ship.
The structural portal is designed to support both vertical and horizontal loads that act on the structure, which provides resistance and stability to it. The columns of this type of porticos are vertical elements that manage to transmit the loads to the ground.
The beams, on the other hand, are horizontal elements that connect the columns and distribute each load throughout the structure. Each element works together to resist the applied loadssuch as the weight of the structure itself, live loads and dead loads.
For his part, frames can be rigidwhere the connections between beam and column are rigid, which allows a complete transfer of forces and moments between the elements. While, these can also be hinged, in which the connections are flexible and allow relative rotation between the elements.
The wooden porches are structures built with wooden elements, these are used in different construction and engineering projects. This type of frame takes advantage of the versatility and natural properties of wood to provide greater resistance to loads and better structural support.
It is understood that the wooden porticos They are made up of beams, columns and other structural elements. made with high quality wood. In general, the wood used for this type of structure can be of different species such as fir, oak, pine or other varieties of wood with resistant and durable properties.
The warm appearance and natural aesthetics Wooden porches are defined, being a popular choice for residential constructions and commercial buildings.
When talking about an exterior porch, it refers to a structure that we can find on the outside of a construction or building. It is generally characterized as a independent structure that fulfills functions from aesthetic to practical.
When talking about the practical point of view, the exterior frames can function as a roof or cover that protects the entrance, lobby or access area to the building. This thanks to the fact that it provides coverage against the sun, rain and even snow, offering people protection while they enter or leave the place.
On the other hand, from a more aesthetic point of view, this type of porticos are designed to add a more architectural or decorative element. These can be more elaborate designs, with various details or a style that enriches the architectural design of the building.
Mixed frames are structures that manage to combine different materials in their construction, usually steel and concrete are used. In civil engineering and construction, this type of portico is often used to take advantage of the properties provided by each material, which provides a more resistant and efficient structure.
The main columns and beams of a composite frame are made up of steel elements, and the secondary elements, such as the slabs or the reinforcements at the nodes, are made of concrete. On the one hand, steel provides strength and structural rigidity, while concrete provides load absorption capacity, mass and fire resistance.
A portal bridge is known as a type of bridge where a portico structure is used to support the loads and in this way allow the passage of people, vehicles or other elements. These bridges are characterized by having two towers or pillars at their ends and an upper beam that connects both towers.
The piers or towers of the portal bridge are vertical structures at the ends of the bridge, which support the vertical and horizontal loads transmitted by the upper beam. These They can be made of steel or reinforced concretewhich are designed to resist the moments and forces generated by the loads applied to the bridge.
How is a porch built?
The construction of the porticos involves various processes and steps that vary depending on the materials to be used and the type of portico, the general steps for this are the following:
- Design and planning: before construction, detailed design of the frame is requiredtaking into account the structural requirements, construction regulations and expected loads.
- Site preparation: the ground must be prepared where the portico is planned to be built, carrying out excavations, leveling and compacting the soil.
- Foundations: the foundations are built which function as a solid base for the structure.
- Lifting of columns and beams: once the foundations have set properly, the erection of beams and columns of the portico
- Connections and reinforcements: connections between beams and columns must be made using bolts, welding or specific connections depending on the type of portico to be built.
- Cover and finishes: in the event that the portico requires a cover, we proceed to install proper decking materialsuch as concrete slabs or ceiling panels. At this point, the final finishes are executed, such as coating, painting or any other aesthetic treatment that is desired.
It should be noted that the development of any type of portico must be done following safety standards and local building regulations. In addition to having experienced and trained professionals in these types of structures.